Lau R , Stuart LM Mechanisms underlying regional differences in lipolysis in human adipose tissue. , If a particular answer is generating a lot of interest on the site today, it may be highlighted in orange. There will also be a list of synonyms for your answer. Compelling studies have documented that excess abdominal fat was a well established risk factor for pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and CVD (22). Adjusted ORs for MetS according to the tertiles of BALF and BATF in men (A) and women (B). RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: LPL and HL activities were determined in post-heparin plasma in a sample of 197 men and 209 women, 60 to 87 years of age. Li H , Guidone C Fewtrell MS Malik V Interestingly, even among participants in the lowest tertile of BATF, the ORs for MetS were much higher in the lowest BALF tertile (OR = 1.89 in men and OR = 1.68 in women) compared with those in the highest tertile BALF. , Davidson MH Generation of an iPSC cohort of isogenic iPSC lines (46-XY and 47-XXY) from a non-mosaic Klinefelter Syndrome patient (47-XXY) (KAUSTi008-A, KAUSTi008-B, KAUSTi008-C, KAUSTi008-D, KAUSTi008-E, KAUSTi008-F, KAUSTi008-G). , Opposite of a person who is drunk or who habitually drinks to excess. The MetS was defined by using the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III for Asian Americans as the presence of three or more of components: 1) waist circumference of at least 90 cm for men or at least 80 cm for women; 2) triglycerides of at least 1.7 mmol/liter; 3) HDL cholesterol lower than 1.03 mmol/liter for men or lower than 1.30 mmol/liter for women; 4) blood pressure of at least 130/85 mm Hg or current use of antihypertentive medications; and 5) fasting glucose of at least 5.6 mmol/liter, previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, or on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin. As indicated in Table 3, the MetS risk monotonically increased from lowest to highest tertiles of BATF (P for trend <0.001 in both genders) after adjustment for age, residence, educational attainment, alcohol drinking, smoking, physical activity, self-reported CVD, family history of diabetes and CVD (model 1), and BALF (model 2). Sorry, and we hope you continue to use The Crossword Solver. , , Tea Trunk is one of India’s first Tea Brands founded and run by a Tea Sommelier. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, Sep 2010 Smith L Yajnik CS Bagger YZ Data are geometric means for adiponectin and PAI-1 and means for RBP4 after adjustment for age, residence, alcohol drinking, smoking, educational attainment, physical activity, self-reported CVD, and family history of diabetes and CVD. McGuire DK Treuth MS, Tankó LB extremities. De Block CE, Wahrenberg H Ehsani AA , Briefly, information on demographic characteristics, disease status, lifestyle practice, and physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form last 7-d format) was collected using a standard questionnaire. Two types of branching occur in trees and shrubs: alternate branching and opposite branching.With alternate branching, the side branches are staggered and alternate throughout the branch. Takahashi M For the components of MetS, increased BALF tertiles were also associated with lower risks for elevated fasting glucose, triglycerides, and blood pressure and reduced HDL cholesterol (all P for trend <0.05, model 2). , Top trunk antonym (adjectives only) is dependent. Find more ways to say trunk, along with related words, antonyms and example phrases at Thesaurus.com, the world's most trusted free thesaurus. Baron AD, Van Pelt RE , , However, it still remains controversial whether abdominal sc and/or visceral fats have adverse effects on metabolic risk. Indeed, we only detected a tendency that leg fat was associated with lower CRP and IL-6 levels in men, whereas trunk fat was significantly associated with these inflammatory factors in both sexes, which are in consistent with the results from a recent study that reported an opposite association of trunk fat and lower-body fat with CRP levels from a large cohort in the European population (27). , Wang J Favourable association of leg fat with cardiovascular risk factors. , Kondos G Synonyms for trunks in Free Thesaurus. , In addition, the leg fat/trunk fat ratio (LTR) was observed to be strongly correlated with a favorable profile of the MetS traits, adipokines, and inflammatory markers (all P < 0.05), except total cholesterol in women and resistin in both genders. , , Wang J Jia W Vega et al. , , Wang X The opposite associations between regional fat depots and MetS risk may partially mediated by adipokines and inflammatory status. Jankowski CM , , Opposite of a habitual drinker of alcohol. Grundy SM, Goodpaster BH To elucidate these issues, the present study is aimed to investigate the associations of fat accumulation in trunk and leg measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) with MetS and various cytokines, including adiponectin, RBP4, resistin, PAI-1, CRP, and IL-6, in middle-aged and older Chinese men and women. Possible role of adiponectin and insulin sensitivity in mediating the favorable effects of lower body fat mass on blood lipids. Gelato MC, Khera A Melendez MM Independent and Opposite Associations of Trunk and Leg Fat Depots with Adipokines, Inflammatory Markers, and Metabolic Syndrome in Middle-Aged and Older Chinese Men and Women. Assessment of body composition might help in the evaluation of diabetes risk. , , , Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. , , A total body DXA scan was performed to determine trunk and leg fat mass. van Dam RM 7 synonyms of trunks from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 21 related words, definitions, and antonyms. The current study is subject to a few limitations. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to clarify the underlying precise molecular mechanisms. Nyomba BL Novel associations between bioavailable estradiol and adipokines in elderly women with different phenotypes of obesity: implications for atherogenesis. , Yamashita S de Lemos JA, Shimomura I , , We determined the associations of trunk and leg fat mass with plasma LPL and HL activities in a cross-sectional study. Wickenheiser KJ , , , Despite the fact that studies from other ethnic populations have documented adverse impact of abdominal fat or trunk fat depot on circulating adiponectin (13, 15, 23) and PAI-1 (10, 24), RBP4 (25, 26), CRP (23), and IL-6 (24), only two studies thus far showed a positive association between leg fat and adiponectin (14, 15), whereas only one report suggested an inverse relationship between leg fat and PAI-1 (10). After isolating nine groups of participants with different fat distribution types according to the tertiles of BATF and BALF (Fig. In the current study, consistent with the findings from the studies in other ethnicities, we have confirmed the adverse effect of trunk fat on most of the cardiometabolic risks in the Chinese population. Body composition, insulin sensitivity, and cardiovascular disease profile in healthy europeans. Stehouwer CD Frohlich JJ After adjustment for BALF and potential confounders, BATF were significantly associated with most of metabolic risk factors (all P < 0.05) except fasting glucose in women and resistin in both genders. Chen Y 1 letter words L 2 letter words EL 3 letter words BIN - BOX - DIE - NEB - NIB 4 letter words Lower-body adiposity and metabolic protection in postmenopausal women. , A total body DXA scan was performed to determine trunk and leg fat mass. Because the vascular trunk is embedded in the LC, this implies that LC shift during axial elongation is associated with greater vulnerability of myopic eyes to glaucomatous damag … , The mechanisms for these apparently opposite effects of trunk and leg fat on these cytokines still remain to be clarified. , Elevated fasting glucose, Fasting glucose of at least 5.6 mmol/liter or previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes or on oral antidiabetic agents or insulin; Elevated triglycerides, triglycerides of at least 1.7 mmol/liter; Reduced HDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol less than 1.03 mmol/liter for men or less than 1.30 mmol/liter for women; Elevated blood pressure, blood pressure of at least 130/85 mm Hg or current use of antihypertentive medications. Residuals from regression of trunk or leg fat on total body mass were obtained and then rescaled by adding the expected trunk or leg fat for a person with mean total body mass (21). To our knowledge, this is the first study that simultaneously investigated trunk and leg fat depots in relation to adipokines, inflammatory markers, and MetS. McNurlan MA Franco OH Conversely, increased BALF was significantly associated with lower levels of fasting glucose, HbA1c, triglycerides, and diastolic blood pressure and higher levels of HDL cholesterol and adiponectin in both genders (all P < 0.05) and lower RBP4 and PAI-1 levels in men (both P < 0.05). , Moreover, the associations between leg fat and MetS and its components observed in the current study are most likely attributable to the sc fat, which account for most of the fat located in the legs, whereas im fat only attributed for 2–6% (39). , , Compared with the lowest LTR tertile, ORs (95% confidence interval) were 0.20 (0.11–0.35) for men and 0.20 (0.13–0.31) for women in the highest tertile. Birmingham CL, Silha JV Lin X, Qi Q Find another word for trunk. Kohrt WM, Snijder MB , The association was attenuated with further controlling adipokines and inflammatory markers (P = 0.09 for men and P = 0.004 for women). , All of these biomarkers are proposed to mediate the adverse effects of obesity on the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes and CVD (12). The less attenuation may also be attributable to the lower number of inflammatory markers used in the current analyses compared with adipokines. Barbot DJ Garvey WT Liu Y Astrup A Larger body-size adjusted leg fat mass was significantly associated with higher adiponectin levels in both genders but lower RBP4 and PAI-1 concentrations in men (P < 0.05). Top synonyms for car trunk (other words for car trunk) are trunk of a car, trunk and boot of a car. Vega GL In a secondary analyses, plasma adipokines and inflammatory markers were further adjusted to examine to what extent these biomarkers may explain the association of regional fat depot with MetS. , Moreover, compared with trunk fat, it seems that leg fat was more closely associated with adipokines than inflammatory factors. , , Given a systematical investigation in the current study, we have first evidenced opposite influences of regional fat distributions on multiple adipokines and inflammatory marker in a single population. Mingrone G Zhao F , These specific characteristics may help prevent ectopic fat accumulation in liver, muscle, and pancreatic β-cells and lead to a decreased metabolic disease risk. , Jingu S, Williams MJ , , Yu Z Miura M , Obesity is an established risk factor for multiple metabolic abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Zhang C Certainly, additional studies with prospective designs are needed to elucidate this aspect. Schechtman KB Li H , Favuzzi AMR We've arranged the synonyms in length order so that they are easier to find. Li TY , Central adiposity was also shown to be a predictor of increased ALT level ( 11, 12 ) and fatty liver ( 13, 14 ), independent of the body mass index (BMI). Hongyu Wu, Qibin Qi, Zhijie Yu, Qi Sun, Jing Wang, Oscar H. Franco, Liang Sun, Huaixing Li, … The updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criterion for Asian Americans was used to define MetS. Methods. Bruun JM Measurements of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density cholesterol (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), adiponectin, RBP4, resistin, PAI-1, CRP, and IL-6 were described previously (16–20). Synonyms, crossword answers and other related words for TRUNK We hope that the following list of synonyms for the word trunk will help you to finish your crossword today. Associations of resistin with inflammatory and fibrinolytic markers, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese. Analyses were performed in men and women separately as a result of gender differences of fat distribution. , , Snijder MB (38) reported that trunk, abdominal sc, and visceral fat showed similar associations with most metabolic risk factors. , Hemostatic risk factors and insulin sensitivity, regional body fat distribution, and the metabolic syndrome. Another word for trunk. , The confounders aforementioned were adjusted in the logistic regression models. Tang H , , , Evans EM , Kelly P , Influence of age on the association of retinol-binding protein 4 with metabolic syndrome. , Antonyms for trunk line. Black E , , , P < 0.05 (two sided) was considered statistically significant. A total of 1150 Shanghai participants (479 men and 671 women) with DXA and also cytokines measured were included in the current analyses. , Murphy LJ, Sam S Design and Methods: Trunk and leg fat mass were determined in a population-based sample of 1150 Chinese (479 men and 671 women) aged 50–70 yr by using whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scan. Lateral flexion of trunk (unilateral to same side) Rotation of trunk (unilateral) to opposite sides. Our data also suggested that opposite associations of trunk and leg fat with metabolic outcomes may be partially mediated by adipokines and inflammatory markers. 1), increasing BALF tertiles were associated with higher adiponectin and lower PAI-1 and RBP4 levels at a given tertile of BATF. , Rosato EL Body weight, height, waist circumference, hip circumference, and blood pressure were measured, and overnight fasting blood samples were collected in the local health station or the community clinic after the home interview (16). Some of these cookies will send your data to our advertising partners. Mynarcik DC In addition, compared with abdominal sc and visceral adipose tissues, femoral/gluteal sc adipose tissues were reported to have lower rates of basal and catecholamine-stimulated lipolysis (35, 36). Franco OH Although the roles of obesity and certain cytokines in the pathogenesis of MetS, type 2 diabetes, and CVD have been extensively investigated (32, 33), few studies have systematically evaluated adipokines and inflammatory factors, as determinates, in the associations between regional fat depots and metabolic diseases, except one study that reported that adiponectin partially explained the association of lower body fat mass with an advantageous blood lipid profile (14). Henry RM Disclosure Summary: The authors have nothing to disclose. , Gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Hu FB , , Adams-Huet B Hu FB, Boorsma W Another word for trunk. Lin X, Qi Q Funahashi T trunk antonyms adjective - 1. 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