Le « code de Nuremberg » est une liste de dix critères contenue dans le jugement du procès des médecins de Nuremberg (décembre 1946 – août 1947) Ces critères indiquent les conditions que doivent satisfaire les expérimentations pratiquées sur l’être humain pour être considérées comme « acceptables »2. Template:For Template:For The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials at the end of the Second World War. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval Burg. In that year the MRC also published its guidelines relating to paediatric experimentation and noted that they should be subject to no greater than the minimum potential harm, though this has later been extended by both the RCPCH in the UK and National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research in the US, to include research that involve more minimum risk under very specific provisions.  At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt. More than 160 became prisoners of war.. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. 1.  Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent restored to its pre-war appearance, including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. It subsequently grew to become the more important industrial city of Southern Germany, one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany, but after the Austro-Prussian War it was given to the Prussia as part of their telegraph stations they had to give up. The Craftsmen's Courtyard, or Handwerkerhof, is another tourist shopping destination in the style of a medieval village.  Nuremberg soon became, with Augsburg, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from Italy to Northern Europe. Six of ten principles in Nuremberg Code are derived from the 1931 Guidelines, and two of four newly inserted principles are open to misinterpretation. Dokumente des Nürnberger Ärzteprozesses.  There are also private schools such as the Akademie Deutsche POP Nürnberg offering higher education.. Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory. Abstract It houses several local family-run businesses which sell handcrafted items from glass, wood, leather, pottery, and precious metals. Created more than 70 years ago following the notorious World War II experiments, this written document established 10 ethical principles for protecting human subjects. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 . The Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. In 1493, he published the Nuremberg Chronicles, also known as the World Chronicles (Schedelsche Weltchronik), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to Regensburg and thence to Vienna.. --Damian Yerrick (☎) 23:04, 6 May 2006 (UTC). Baroque composer Johann Pachelbel was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture – secular Baroque architecture is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of St. Egidien church, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia. The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere and the ossification of the social hierarchy and legal structures contributed to the decline in trade. One thing I would suggest is to proofread your article again and improve transitions. Ces critères indiquent les conditions que doivent satisfaire les expérimentations pratiquées sur l'être humain pour être considérées comme « acceptables »2. Abstract The Nuremberg Code drafted at the end of the Doctor's trial in Nuremberg 1947 has been hailed as a landmark document in medical and research ethics.  Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the Empire.  During the Princes' 1552 revolution against Charles V, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but Margrave Albert Alcibiades, one of the leaders of the revolt, attacked the city without a declaration of war and dictated a disadvantageous peace. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe. Technische Hochschule Nürnberg Georg Simon Ohm and Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg are also located within the city. As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. The protagonists of the practice of human , During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg fostered a rich, varied, and influential literary culture.. Nuremberg Airport ( IATA: NUE, ICAO: EDDN ), German: Albrecht Dürer Flughafen Nürnberg, is the international airport of the Franconian metropolitan area of Nuremberg and the second-busiest airport in Bavaria after Munich Airport. The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg) takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. However, Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons: Following the trials, in October 1946, several prominent German Nazi politicians and military leaders were executed in Nuremberg. 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What I would like is a reference to the text supplied quoting the Code? The first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. Pocket watches — Nuremberg eggs — were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc. It was a leading city 500 years ago, but 90% of the town was destroyed in 1945 during the war. Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. Thus the legal force of the document was not well established.  Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. "), Ref: https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laneur/article/PIIS1474-4422(14)70119-X/fulltext — Preceding unsigned comment added by 126.96.36.199 (talk) 18:38, 8 December 2020 (UTC), An update is mandatory since the code has been revised several times..and, IMHO, is loosing ground (regarding mentally disabled e.g. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of Nuremberg U-Bahn Line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a U-Bahn subway system. Kode ini dibuat setelah Karl Brandt melakukan pemaksaan terhadap warga Yahudi pada masa Perang Dunia II.Terdapat 10 butir yang diciptakan untuk memastikan tidak ada pemaksaan yang terjadi dalam penelitian.  The city was severely damaged in Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. Belmont Report: Ethical Principles and Guidelines for the Protection of Human Subjects of Research; Declaration of Helsinki; Nuremberg Code; Research Standards. , After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for IC and ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg Code, the Declaration of Helsinki, and The Belmont Report all address voluntary informed consent as a requirement for the ethical conduct of human subjects research. Mitscherlich, A. und Mielke, F.  From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. I think that would be helpful for organization purposes. Nuremberg (/ˈnjʊərəmbɜːrɡ/ NEWR-əm-burg; German: Nürnberg [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] (listen); in the local East Franconian dialect: Närmberch [ˈnɛrmbɛrç]) is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the 14th-largest city in Germany. Close examination of this code reveals that it was based on the Guidelines for Human Experimentation of 1931. In 1515, Albrecht Dürer, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. The A3 (Netherlands–Frankfurt–Würzburg–Vienna) passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1525 Nuremberg accepted the Protestant Reformation, and in 1532 the Nuremberg Religious Peace was signed[by whom?] The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. However, over half of the historic look of the center, and especially the northeastern half of the old Imperial Free City was not restored. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 188.8.131.52 (talk) 20:07, 9 April 2008 (UTC). The Doctors' trial (officially United States of America v.Karl Brandt, et al.) The regular updating of some ethics codes is evidence of the evolving nature of human ethics. Le « code de Nuremberg » est une liste de dix critères contenue dans le jugement du procès des médecins de Nuremberg (décembre 1946 - août 1947)1. There are few events that have impacted more on the history of research ethics than the publication of the Nuremberg Code in 1947. Ethical Codes. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here, and extensively used slave labour. Henryschuh (talk) 20:23, 22 April 2017 (UTC), Hi Dhk0308, great job on editing the background and adding authorship and significance to the page. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons. Contents[show] Background On August 19, 1947, the judges delivered their verdict in the "Doctors' Trial" against Karl Brandt and several others. In the half century following the trial, the code informed numerous international ethics statements. Nuremberg is the second-largest city of the German federal state of Bavaria after its capital Munich, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the 14th-largest city in Germany.  Frequent fights took place with the burgraves - without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. The Diets of Nuremberg played an important role in the administration of the empire. The medical experiments conducted by German doctors and prosecuted in the so-called Doctors' Trial led to the creation of the Nuremberg Code to control future trials involving human subjects. They won their first regional title in the Southern German championship in 1916 closely followed by their first national title in 1920. Behind the massacre of 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz. II by C.J. I suggest that a qualified Wikipedia contributor add a section to this article to address the prima-facie conflict and corresponding controversy regarding potential and actual mandatory vaccination schemes and involuntary imposed fluoridation of drinking water in nations and communities across the globe (particularly in the U.S., which seems to be bucking the trend of easing this practice; due, presumably, in large part to findings such as that by The Lancet (British Medical Journal - March 2014) that fluoridated water directly correlates to substantial reduced intelligence quotients in those subjected to it and the very first sentence of the Nuremberg Code (that being: "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. It is not to be confused with, Map of city centre with air raid destruction. The 10 points are, (all from United States National Institutes of Health)  1. The Nuremberg Code is the most important document in the history of the ethics of medical research. If you would like to participate, please visit the project page or join the discussion. The Nuremberg Code drafted at the end of the Doctor's trial in Nuremberg 1947 has been hailed as a landmark document in medical and research ethics. The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the centre of the German Renaissance. New device puts music in your head — no headphones required. The Nuremberg Code is a set of principles for human experimentation set as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity. Due to the. King Conrad III (reigning as King of Germany from 1138 to 1152) established the Burgraviate of Nuremberg, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab. In 1298 the Jews of the town were falsely accused[by whom?] It is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area (colloquially: "Franconian"; German: Fränkisch), Nuremberg was one of the host cities of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. , Nuremberg has been a destination for immigrants. Nuremberg is located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. Close examination of this code reveals that it was based on the Guidelines for Human Experimentation of 1931. The Nuremberg Code (1949) International Principles for Human Experimentation From Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. ): Medizin ohne Menschlichkeit. Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg.  The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the Meistersingerhalle but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the Kongresshalle and the Serenadenhof. This article is within the scope of the WikiProject Statistics, a collaborative effort to improve the coverage of statistics on Wikipedia. There is evidence that the defendants at the trial did request that their actions be judged on the basis of the 1931 Guidelines, in force in Germany. Visitors to the Christmas market can peruse the hundreds of stalls and purchase local wood crafts, nutcrackers, smokers, and prune people, while sampling Christmas sweets and traditional gluhwein. This means that the person involved should have legalcapacity to give consent; should be so situated as to be able to exercise free power of choice, without the intervention of any element of force, fraud, deceit, duress, over-reaching, or other ulterior form of constraint or coercion; and should have sufficient knowledge and comprehension of the elements of th… Nuremberg was the site of major Nazi rallies, and it provided the site for the Nuremberg trials, which held to account many major Nazi officials. Nuremberg also boasts a two Michelin Star rated restaurant, Essigbrätlein. Neil Gregor, Haunted City. The Falcons play their home games at the Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum (BBZ). The city lies about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich. With this they held the record for the most German championship titles until 1986 when the current record holder FC Bayern München surpassed them. This means that the person involved should have legal capacity to give consent", So in the case of experimentation upon children, such as in pediatric clinical trials of a new drug, does a typical protocol designate the parent or guardian as "the person involved"? TuS Bar Kochba is a league that was founded in 1913 as a social-sport club for the Jewish community in Nürnberg. , In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to Middle Franconia (German: Mittelfranken) on 1 January 1838. Besides the eleven regional championships they won they were the German championship for a total of seven times. There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods. , In 2017, Nuremberg saw a total of 3.3 million overnight stays, a record for the town, and is expected to have surpassed that in 2018, with more growth in tourism anticipated in the coming years. It is unfortunate that the authors of the Nuremberg Code passed it off as their original work. Out of more than 700 planes participating, 106 were shot down or crash-landed on the way home to their bases, and more than 700 men were missing, as many as 545 of them dead. (Hrsg. On the Pegnitz River (from its confluence with the Rednitz in Fürth onwards: Regnitz, a tributary of the River Main) and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it lies in the Bavarian administrative region of Middle Franconia, and is the largest city and the unofficial capital of Franconia. The Nuremberg Code is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation set as a result of the subsequent Nuremberg trials at the end of WWII. 39.5% of the residents had an immigrant background in 2010 (counted with MigraPro).. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. Finally, the A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg. The page can be quite reputable without noting every alternative that exists, however, if you can think of other put them in See also section.  In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of Bavaria with companies such as Siemens and MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Frankfurt a.M. 1960, S. 272f.  The city's tourism board sells the Nurnberg Card which allows for free use of public transportation and free entry to all museums and attractions in Nuremberg for a two-day period.  In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics.  There are several types of tours offered in the city, including historic tours, those that are Nazi-focused, underground and night tours, walking tours, sightseeing buses, self guided tours, and an old town tour on a mini train. Culinary tourists can taste the city's famous lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and Nürnberger Rostbratwürstchen, or Nuremberg sausages. With 39,780 students in 2017, it is Bavaria's third-largest and Germany's 11th-largest university, with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a university hospital in Erlangen (Universitätsklinikum Erlangen). The Nuremberg Code (German: Nürnberger Kodex) is a set of research ethics principles for human experimentation created as a result of the Nuremberg trials at the end of the Second World War. Secondary education is offered at 23 Mittelschulen, 12 Realschulen, and 17 Gymnasien (state, city, church, and privately owned). In 1349 the members of the guilds unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a Handwerkeraufstand ('Craftsmen's Uprising'), supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe; the unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchs remained in power while Nuremberg was a free city (until the early-19th century). Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. There are many institutions of higher education in the city, including the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg (Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg). FC Nürnberg, known locally as Der Club (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and currently plays in the Bundesliga. First, a few formatting comments: using "we"/personal pronouns seems inconsistent with the vast majority of Wikipedia articles, and also, there are quite a few terms you could link to other other related articles ("racial hygiene", the Nazi government, Nuremberg, to name a few in the first section). The Nuremberg Code has fallen by the wayside; since unlike the Declaration of Helsinki, it is not regularly reviewed and updated. Its orchestra, Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the Bavarian State Opera's Bavarian State Orchestra in Munich. Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. It is on the river Pegnitz and the Rhine-Main-Danube Canal and is Franconia 's largest city. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. 10. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. Although the code addressed the defense arguments in general, remarkably none of the specific findings against Brandt and his codefendants mentioned the code. It is about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich , at 49.27° N 11.5° E. Kode Nürnberg (bahasa Inggris: Nuremberg Code) adalah kode etik dasar yang dibuat berdasarkan hak asasi manusia setelah Perang Dunia II. The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 souls. Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof (German for Nuremberg main station) or Nuremberg Central Station is the main railway station serving the city of Nuremberg in Germany.It is the largest station in north Bavaria and belongs to the 20 stations in the highest category of importance allocated by DB Station&Service.. Nuremberg is an important port on the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal. Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg. ), "The voluntary consent of the human subject is absolutely essential. Nuremberg is Bavaria's second largest city after Munich, and a popular tourist destination for foreigners and Germans alike. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. During the Second World War, Nuremberg was the headquarters of Wehrkreis (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including aircraft, submarines and tank engines. The A6 (France–Saarbrücken–Prague) passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. This page was last edited on 15 December 2020, at 21:09. Nuremberg offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts. , The Pedestrian zones of Nuremberg host festivals and markets throughout the year, most well known being Christkindlesmarkt, Germany's largest Christmas market and the gingerbread capital of the world. In answer to the above - The Nuremburg Code was not an acceptable framework for the inclusion of children in medical research - see Ramsey vs McCormack throughout the seventies - the inclusion of children in research under very strict regulation was established when the code was incorporated into the Helsinki declaration of 1964. Specific findings against Brandt and his codefendants mentioned the Code informed numerous ethics. The 2006 FIFA World Cup and accommodates 50,000 spectators were falsely accused [ by whom? for all,... 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